FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS
36275 Sunset Drive
Dousman, WI 53118
The Wisconsin Program
The Wisconsin Program starts your introduction to the Masonic Fraternity. It is not merely for you; it should be shared with family members. As a presentation, it is hoped that the information contained herein will enable you to gain some understanding of the structure and history of Masonry, and later help you gain a greater appreciation of the degrees that will follow.
Revised and Assembled (2016) by the Wisconsin
Grand Lodge Long Range Planning Committee
Revision 2, May 1, 2016
The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge
Free and Accepted Masons of Wisconsin
Who Are Masons?
Freemasonry is a fraternal organization for men which furthers the principles of brotherhood.
When a man joins a Masonic Lodge he enters into an opportunity for personal development and character building which enhances his community, strengthens his family ties, and extends his involvement in charitable causes.
What is Freemasonry?
Freemasonry is often thought to be complex and difficult to explain or understand. Perhaps the following ten basic elements will simplify, but help retain an essential understanding.
1. In a Lodge room, a Mason is expected to be informative and inspirational.
2. In the home, a Mason is gentle, kind, and faithful.
3. In business relationships, a Mason is honest and maintains his veracity.
4. In his daily work, a Mason exhibits thoroughness and dependability.
5. In social contacts, a Mason conducts himself with moderation and selfcontrol.
6. Towards the fortunate, a Mason is the first to offer congratulations and best wishes.
7. Towards the weak, a Mason quickly offers compassion and assistance.
8. When confronted with wickedness, a Mason resists and renders rebuke.
9. Towards the truly penitent, a Mason grants forgiveness and another chance.
10. Finally, towards God, a Mason shows reverence, love and obedience.
These ten concepts are easy to remember but difficult to achieve, but through daily practice and support from their brother Masons, one can hope to accomplish them.
Men who are Freemasons take great pride in their membership for many reasons, and because of the philosophical teachings of Masonry, the Craft becomes prominent as part of a force dedicated to worthy purposes.
Masonic Blue Lodge Elected Officers
Masonic Blue Lodge Appointed Officers
* Designates a Progressive Line Officer
Blue Lodges: Blue Lodges are chartered by their jurisdiction s Grand
Lodge, and are called Blue as a symbol of the heavens under which Lodges conduct their work. Most Lodges exist in communities and generally meet twice per month for ten months. The line officers listed as progressive line officers above generally progress through those offices on an annual basis; thus, in an optimal situation, it would take a new line officer seven years to become Worshipful Master. In addition to the responsibilities listed below, each officer is expected to learn and perform the ritual work prescribed for his office.
Worshipful Master: Elected to run the Blue Lodge for the year. As the chief executive, the success of the Lodge is generally in proportion to the skill with which he constructs his plans and executes his design. He runs the business of each meeting, and coordinates all activities happening in the Lodge, from degree work to committee meetings.
Senior Warden: Elected to serve as the Worshipful Master s assistant. In the event of the Master s absence, he assumes the duties of the Master. In addition to aiding the Master, the Senior Warden s principal task is to lay out his actionplan for his term as Master.
Junior Warden: Elected to superintend the Craft while at refreshment, to maintain the balance between pleasure and intemperance. In addition to begin planning for his term as Master, his chief responsibility is to act as liaison between his lodge and its youth groups.
Senior Deacon: Appointed by the Master to assist him in attending to any business occurring at the inner door of the lodge. His chief duty is to perform the ritual by receiving and conducting candidates for their degrees. Also, he is responsible to introduce and accommodate any visiting brethren.
Junior Deacon: Appointed by the Master to assist him in attending to business occurring at the outer door of the lodge. His chief duty is to perform the ritual by preparing and introducing candidates for their degrees.
Senior Steward and Junior Steward: Appointed by the Master to assist the Deacons and other officers in performing their duties. Their chief duty is to see that the tables are properly furnished at refreshment and to see that every brother is suitably provided for. Perhaps the most important task of the Stewards is to diligently attend meetings and learn the ritual so that they are prepared as they advance to the higher chairs.
Grand Lodge: The Grand Lodge is the governing body of all Blue Lodges and has a specific jurisdiction, usually a State. There is no national or supreme Grand Lodge. Grand Lodge membership consists of the top three elected officers of the Blue Lodges, and, collectively, it is their responsibility to decide matters at the annual communication (convention). The Grand Lodge has officers, like the Blue Lodge officers, whose responsibilities are to execute the administrative matters of the Grand Lodge. An enumeration of those duties, here, is unnecessary except to point out that the Grand Master is elected to serve as the supreme authority for all lodges, his decisions, edicts, and dispensations are final and unrepealable except at the annual communication where the constituent body may reject actions of the Grand Master.
The diagram pictured below illustrates the major organizations that branch from
Freemasonry. Membership in nearly all requires an affiliation to a Blue Lodge, and are detailed below with their designated charities and membership. It illustrates that there are many opportunities for a Mason and his entire family to get very much involved and to be of service to those who could use our help.
Organization Membership Designated Charity or Philanthropy
Hospitals, Orphanages, Adult Care, Community Service
Dentistry for Handicapped
Schizophrenia Research, Children s Learning Centers
Eye Care, Auditory and Arteriosclerosis Research
Men and Women
Cancer Research, Religious Leadership Training
Men and Women
Funding for Medical Care to those with no other means
Men and Women
Men and Women
Shrine Hospitals for Crippled & Burned Children
Daughters of Nile
Shrine Hospitals for Crippled & Burned Children
Social and Community Service
Job s Daughters
Hearing Impaired Kid s Endowment Fund (H.I.K.E.)
Community Service and Charity Volunteerism
The true origins of Freemasonry are unknown. It is believed to have existed for several hundred years before the social and political climate were such that the Freemasons felt comfortable to make themselves known. The first undisputed identified date is 1717 when the Grand Lodge of England was formed.
Many theories exist as to how the Freemasons came to be and why they developed such a strong system of moral education. One of the theories, now generally disbelieved, is that the Masons during King Solomon s reign organized themselves into a body of reflective thinkers, and through Solomon s proverbs of wisdom, a greater system of morality came into practice.
Another theory, most widely accepted, is that the operative guilds of craftsmen and tradesmen of the late Middle Ages and early renaissance periods extended the terminology of their trades to a deeper application of human conduct.
A new theory gaining a great deal of support has been presented by several nonmasonic academic historians. They have presented a theory that the Masons were born out of the Papal Templar Knights excommunication from Rome and the Catholic Church in the later stages of the Crusades. In this theory, they allege that the Mason's references to King Solomon s Temple and use of operative tools and symbols was purely intentional, and that it did not develop out of a natural evolution from operative masonry. Much of the language of our ritual can be traced to this theory, and it is being taken very seriously by many.
The political and theological climate on the European continent in the 1300 s did not allow for fraternal guilds, while in Great Britain they were sought by craftsmen and encouraged by royalty. This helps to explain why Freemasonry today traces its roots back to England and is most widespread in Englishspeaking countries.
In 1356, rules for the guidance of the Masons in London were established and by 1370 these had been formed into the Company of Freemasons and larger Company of Masons. The regulations of these craft guilds were recorded on parchment and are called the Manuscript of Gothic Constitutions, the earliest of which comes from 1390 and is called the Regius Poem.
The old constitutions were divided into two separate sections. The first is called the Legend of the Craft and describes the origin of Masonry in early Biblical times and tracing it through King Solomon s Temple to England. This section is part myth and part history. The second section is called The Old Charges, and is a listing of the rules which were created at that time to govern the guild and settle disputes. These documents were read to the candidate during his initiation, much as certain lectures are recited in lodge today.
The 14th century struggles between the Hospitallers and the Knights Templar, both Crusade-inspired orders, culminated in the destruction of the Templars. While the Inquisition actively pursued the European continental Templar
Knights, it is theorized that the English authorities did not elect to so pursue them and the Knights went underground and became a most important factor in the development of Speculative Masonry in that country.
Three important changes occurred in the 1500 s
1. The Church in England separated itself from Roman authority which made most of Great Britain officially Protestant.
2. There was a general decline in the demand for large, ornate church buildings.
3. The religious conflicts on the continent diverted royal spending.
The years from 1530 to 1600 were probably the leanest the Craft had ever seen.
During the late 1590 s, however, an important change occurred. In the strict
Protestant royal court in Scotland, a Roman Catholic architect named William Schaw recognized the decline of the Masonic guild and succeeded in reorganizing it. On December 2, 1598 he issued the first Schaw Statutes which took the old gothic constitutions and translated them into the statutes and ordinances to be observed by all the Master Masons within this realm. As the Master of Works to the Scottish crown, he was largely responsible for the revival of the mason s trade, and he set the stage for the transition to philosophical Masonry by becoming, in effect, the first Grand Master. He also transferred power from the Guild Companies to individual lodges. The oldest lodge minutes yet found are dated 1599, and it is no coincidence that they are from Scotland. Brother Schaw s efforts were successful and many of his ideas are found in the Masonic organization today.
Within the London Mason's Company, there is evidence of an inner fraternity known as the Acception. Those admitted to this body paid 20 shillings if they were members of the Mason s Company or 40 shillings if not. Seven members of the company also belonged to the Acception. Since the Records of the Mason s Company prior to 1620 have been lost, we can use this date as the earliest speculative lodge in evidence. It is possible that this explains our current use of Free and Accepted Masons, as at that time, all trade-skilled Masons were free to apply their trade, but now other non-skilled members were accepted to learn the philosophical aspects.
A chemist and non-mason named Robert Plot described the nature of 17th century lodge activity in his 1686 book, The Natural History of Staffordshire (England). Dr. Plot was the curator of the Aslumolean Museum of Oxford University. The founder, Elias Ashmole, was an early Accepted Mason. However, Scottish Lodges maintained much better records during this period and we are indebted to two excellent historians named Lawry and Lyon for much of what we know of 17th century Freemasonry. The Aberdeen Lodge minutes begin in 1670 and contain 49 names of which only 10 were operative Masons. The names include many earls, lords, and knights, several pastors, and other professional men.
It was common that ministers and bishops were often Freemasons. The Presbytery of Kelso in 1652 supported the right of Rev. James Ainslie to become a Freemason, stating that there is neither sin nor scandal in its (the Mason's) word. As the Society changed from a scattering of independent lodges to these same lodges being subordinate to a national Grand Lodge (which occurred in 1717), ministers of religion played an increasingly important part. Nothing makes this more evident than the facts that the author of the Constitutions of the Freemasons (1723) was Rev. James Anderson, A. M. (a Presbyterian Scot), and the third Grand Master of Masons in England was Rev. J. T. Desaguliers (an Anglican priest, Doctor of Divinity, and member of the
Royal Society). An analysis of early French and Italian lodges shows that up to 7% of the members were Roman Catholic priests. Even today, many religious and lay leaders of many creeds are members of the Craft.
The Grand Lodge system is the administrative heart of speculative
Freemasonry. In 1716-1717, four lodges in London began discussions and sent representatives which met as the first Grand Lodge. They insisted that all Masonic lodges owed allegiance to this body and that Brothers who wished to establish their own lodge, must seek this Grand body for a charter. Practically every lodge in the world, and certainly every recognized Grand Lodge, can trace its history directly to the mother Grand Lodge in London, England. As the ritual became more standardized, and because Grand Masters were often wealthy, well placed gentlemen, the Society grew rapidly.
The Masons of the 1700 s did not meet very often. They would attend when summoned to initiate a new member, but most meetings were centered around the Church feasts of St. John the Baptist in June and St. John the Evangelist in December. The lodge meeting was followed by a dinner with wine and then ballroom dancing with their wives. Even during the darkest days of the American Revolution, General George Washington and his staff rarely missed these festive occasions. Many lodges rented rooms above taverns or inns for these reasons.
The charitable aspects of the fraternity continued during its change into a philosophical society. Grand Lodges collected sums from their constituent lodges for the provision of the widows and orphans of Masons. The Grand Lodge of Scotland established a royal hospital with several beds reserved for poor Masons and their family members. The Grand Lodge of Sweden did likewise. The Prussian and German lodges provided for the boarding and education of orphans. This tradition continues today.
As English merchants and military personnel traveled, they established lodges on the continent of Europe throughout the early 1700 s. Because these lodges were tiled and composed of foreigners, many were initially harassed and suppressed. Soon, native men were admitted and even native ministers of State and royalty joined. What were seen initially as foreign threats, soon became part of respectable society. Yet, as the Craft spread further from its native AngloSaxon soil, many men were tempted to use the Craft for purposes alien to its original design. Many radical politicians and even atheists caused scandals which forced governments to persecute quasi-masonic bodies, and the Roman Catholic Church to view the fraternity with skepticism.
Yet, in 1799, when England feared the radical politics they saw in France and banned secret societies, Freemasonry was excluded by name from the law. Orthodox Freemasonry had earned the respect of the British government for it had bridged the gap between social classes and prevented the type of bloody revolution which France experienced in the 1790 s.
Gothic and published constitutions encourage a Mason to attend his church or synagogue and support his country. Theologically, operative and transitional Freemasonry was Christian. However, speculative or philosophical Freemasonry has attracted Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish and Muslim members from its earliest days.
Politically, Freemasonry was patronized by the establishment and is seen as a defender of it; but Masons who have seen injustice have often felt called to change their form of government. An early criticism of Freemasonry was that it was republican rather than royalist. Many reformers and revolutionaries have been members of the Fraternity, while many other members have been kings and princes. In short, modern Freemasonry supports religion without being sectarian, and supports just government without being partisan. This is Freemasonry s genius, and is the reason why its greatest enemies have always been bigots and dictators.
The Jesuit Inquisition, the Czars of Russia, Adolph Hitler (who had a special S.S. division locate and transport Masons to the death camps), and Joseph Stalin all confiscated property, persecuted and even murdered members of the Fraternity because they feared its liberating philosophy. Without doubt, the freedom of assembly is a threat to intolerant regimes.
Today, many Grand Lodges are re-emerging from decades of Communist persecution. The Grand Lodges of Austria and Germany are playing an important part in this endeavor. Five lodges have been chartered in what was formally eastern Germany.
The history and nature of Freemasonry in Great Britain and Europe was a fraternal organization that gradually began to reflect and adhere to a philosophy of religious tolerance, representative government, and individual liberty taught through lectures and symbolisms. This fraternity of Accepted Masons attracted many prominent landowners, merchants, military officers, tradesmen, and royalty. Historians inform us that Freemasonry was an elite fraternity at that time, but was more open than society at large.
In the mid-to-late 1600 s, the Church of England and the civil authorities harassed those who refused to conform to Anglican theology. Methodists, Baptists, Unitarians, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Quakers, and Roman Catholics found it difficult to practice their faith in peace. It is not surprising, therefore, that the first settlements in the New World were often made up entirely of members of these sects: Quakers in Pennsylvania, Methodists in the Carolinas, Congregationalists in Massachusetts, Roman Catholics in Maryland.
These people came here to establish a new order: a moral, but secular government. It was heavily influenced by Masonic Philosophy. In fact, Freemasonry has flourished in the United States to the extent that there are six American Masons for every English Mason!
Freemasons were among those who emigrated from Great Britain, and the first record of their presence in the New World dates from 1682 when three Masons from a lodge in Aberdeen, Scotland, arrived in New Jersey. Brother John Skene remained to become Deputy Governor of West Jersey and he is thought to be the first Mason to become a permanent resident in America. Lord Baltimore, the owner of Maryland, was a Mason, as was the Royal Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Jonathan Belcher. The latter was born in Boston in 1681, graduated from Harvard in 1699, but received his Masonic degrees in England in 1704 in an old Guilde Lodge. He affiliated with St. John s Lodge in Boston. In 1741 he wrote:
It is now Thirty Seven years since I was admitted into the ancient and Hon'ble Society of Free and Accepted Masons, to whom I have been a Faithful Brother, & well-wisher to the Art of Masonry. I shall ever maintain a strict friendship for the whole Fraternity. . .
Masons met informally for decades until the first lodges in Boston and Philadelphia were chartered. When there were enough lodges, the Grand Lodge in England appointed the first Provincial Grand Master, Daniel Coxe in April, 1730. Benjamin Franklin, a young printer from Philadelphia, printed the following in December of that year:
As there are several Lodges of Free-Masons erected in this Province, and People have lately been much amus'd with conjectures concerning them...
The article relates a story that appeared in a London paper the previous August.
In the story, a man who stumbles across some Masonic papers concludes, their
Grand Secret is that they have no Secret at all. Franklin became a Mason in
February 1731, reprinted Anderson s constitutions in 1734, and served as Grand Master of Masons in Pennsylvania from 1734-1735. Benjamin Franklin remained an active Freemason in America and in France throughout his life.
The Masonic Quality of brotherly love is best illustrated in Colonial American history by the establishment of Georgia. Many of the Grantees were Masons when the colony was Chartered in 1732. In 1733, the Grand Lodge in London made a generous collection among their members to assist the Trustees who had been appointed to send distressed Brethren to Georgia, where they may be comfortably provided for. The distressed brethren were those confined to Debtor's Prisons.
Masonic historians conclude that American Freemasonry was very similar to the fraternity in Great Britain during our Colonial years. A change began to occur as tension mounted between the two lands prior to the War for Independence. It is enough to say that so many of the Founding Fathers, so many of the Officers in the Revolutionary Army, and so many of the early political leaders were Freemasons that the United States as an idea and as a reality would not exist without the Masonic ideals which men studied and lived at that time.
The growth and spread of Freemasonry in the American colonies and then in the states was due in large part to military lodges. These were formed by men in the armed forces; Irish, Scots, and English who were stationed here. By 1776, records of the Grand Lodge in London indicate that it had chartered 36 lodges. Lodges chartered by other Grand Lodges would bring that number to above 50. During the Civil War, over 100 military lodges were chartered. Today, American military lodges exist in the Gulf, Germany, Japan, Korea, and other places where Americans are stationed.
Yet, even the war for our independence could not sever the bonds of friendship between Masons. The following letter was sent by General Parsons to the British enemy when British lodge material fell into Colonial hands:
Brethren: When the ambition of Monarchs or jarring interest of contending States, call forth their subjects to war, as Masons we are disarmed of that resentment... and however our political sentiments may impel us in the public dispute, we... ought to promote the happiness and advance the wealth of each other. Accept therefore, at the hands of a Brother, the Constitution of the Lodge Unity No. 18 to be held in the 17th British Regiment which your late misfortunes have put in my power to restore to you.
After the war, the Masonic Founding Fathers continued to exert a powerful influence upon the nation. The president of the constitutional convention, George Washington was a Freemason, as were over one third of the delegates.
When Washington was administered the oath of Office of the President of the U.S. in 1789, it was performed by Robert R. Livingston, Grand Master of Masons in New York State. The oath was taken on the Bible supplied by St. John s Lodge No. 1, New York City. Washington served two terms as the leader of his country, leaving office in 1797. Presidents Carter and Bush have also taken their Presidential oath upon the same Bible.
Symbolic of Freemasonry s role in American history are the facts that the boundary stone for the District of Columbia was laid with Masonic ceremonies in 1791. The President s house (now called the White House) was given a like ceremony in 1792. In 1793, the architect for the Capitol, James Hoban, a Roman Catholic and Freemason, helped to organize the greatest Masonic event ever held the laying of the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol Building with Masonic honors.
Masonic government was unusual in our early days. States often had lodges within their boundaries which were chartered by differing Grand Lodges. Some of these lodges wanted to establish a Grand Lodge of their own. Before the Revolutionary War, Mr. Prince Hall and fourteen other African-American men were initiated into a Masonic lodge near Boston Harbor. When the British left during the war, the men petitioned and received a charter from the Grand Lodge in London for African Lodge No. 459 which was granted in 1784. However, when lodges in Massachusetts organized their own Grand Lodge after the War, they made a terrible mistake because African Lodge was excluded. The members of African Lodge formed their own Grand Lodge in 1827. This Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masons is now recognized by several Masonic jurisdictions including Wisconsin. Their membership is well over 350,000 worldwide, including a recent past U.S. Supreme Court justice and the Governor of Virginia. Prince Hall Freemasons have a reputation for being of the highest character and well-read in Masonic Law and customs. In Wisconsin, the Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masonry is located in Milwaukee.
American Freemasonry prospered during the temperance and prohibition eras which held sway at that time. After the War Between the States, the many military lodges slowly transformed themselves into civilian ones. Televisions, combined with the positive effects which Freemasonry had on soldiers and
P.O.W.s, resulted in a large increase in the Fraternity s membership. It is widely known that Freemasons looked out for the best interests of their brothers and their families.
This outreach began to be initiated by other organizations. Many fraternities, now long since forgotten, sprang up across the country. It was the age of fraternalism in America.
During the latter part of the 1800 s, a new club within our fraternity had emerged to reach out to the nation in a humanitarian effort. In effect, the Shriners were a reaction to the puritanization of the Craft. Their successful system of hospitals and burn centers, their huge endowment, and the demands of time and money are made upon its membership.
The French Jesuits first explored our area in the year 1634 moving from the Mississippi eastward. In 1760, after the French and Indian war, the area was ceded to the English. It became part of the United States (as the Northwest Territory) in 1787. Masonic activity in Wisconsin came from the Great Lakes region, first established in Green Bay, in 1823, when seven army officers and three civilians met in the home of Brother George Johnston on a farm on the west shore of the Fox River. They met for the feast of St. John the Evangelist, December 27th.
The military officers were part of the 3rd Regiment, of which four companies were stationed at Fort Howard under the command of Col. John McNeil, a Mason. Under his leadership, the brothers drafted an edition to the Grand Lodge of New York for a charter. The lodge was named Menomonie Lodge and met in Green Bay. The charter arrived a year later (1824). By that time, the lodge had increased from 10 to 21 members, including Rev. Eleazer Williams who was raised in 1825 and Henry S. Baird, who would become Grand Master. This lodge went dark in 1830 due to the redeployment of the military.
Mineral Point was settled by Englishmen who arrived to mine lead. The lodge received its dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Missouri. It was active in 1840 and chartered in 1843. Its Senior Warden was Charles Dunn, the first Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court for the Territory of Wisconsin. Masons in
Platteville were chartered in late 1843 as Melody Lodge. Its first Master was
Rev. Benjamin T. Kavanaugh, who would later become Wisconsin s first Grand
Master. The Grand Lodge of Illinois chartered Milwaukee Lodge in 1843. Its Master was Rev. Lemuel B. Hull, Rector of St. Paul s Episcopal Church. The lodge was formed of 39 charter members, including Byron Kilbourn and George H. Walker. Delegates from these three lodges met on December 18, 1843, and formed the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Wisconsin. Each lodge was obliged to pay $1.00 per member to the Grand Lodge, of which fully 25% was for charity.
Freemasonry grew from less than 100 members at its formation in Wisconsin to over 18,000 by 1900. It is to Rev. Kavanaugh, a Methodist preacher and a Masonic student, that we owe much of our success here in Wisconsin. Reflect upon his address at the first Grand Lodge annual communication:
While there are ten thousand causes operating upon the family of man to sever the bonds of friendship and brotherly love and set men and Masons at variance, Masonry, like and angel of peace, throws her influence around the globe and brings men upon a level in Love, Peace, and Unity... Masonry thus stands forth as venerable as Time, as firm as Truth, and as benevolent as Mercy, let us hail it a happy welcome into Wisconsin where it may find a vineyard in which to labor. (January 17, 1844)
As one of the newest Masons in Wisconsin, we hope these words will inspire you to serve your religious faith, your community, and your lodge with the spirit of a pioneer.
Many others who have preceded us have been so inspired to excel in their chosen fields, and we have those who have honored us with their membership: former Governors Dreyfus, Peck, Heil, LaFollette, Vernon Thompson, Goodland, Rennebaum, and Tommy Thompson; Supreme Court Justice Day,
Past Chief Justice Curry; the Ringling Brothers; magician Harry Houdini, Green
Bay Packers Bart Starr and Ray Nitschke; Lieutenant Governor Scott McCallum. Most recently, 6th District US Congressman Thomas E. Petri and Attorney General J B VanHollen, who is also a Past Grand Master.
Indeed, scarcely a town in Wisconsin is without a Masonic founder the type of man after whom schools, avenues, and parks are named. It is an awesome responsibility to live up to the standards these men have set, but we are confident that your Masonic affiliation will assist you in developing the type of character that will be esteemed and respected by all with whom you interact.
Harry Truman Gerald Ford
John Hancock Paul Revere
Edgar Mitchell Virgil Grissom
Edwin Buzz Aldrin
Wolfgang A. Mozart
F. Joseph Haydn
John Philip Sousa
George M. Cohan
Nat King Cole
Duke Ellington Louis Armstrong
James C. Penney
Sebastian S. Kresge
Louis B. Mayer
Darryl F. Zanuck
John L. Lewis David Sarnoff
Film & TV Stars:
Cecil B. DeMille
Douglas Fairbanks, Sr.
Mel Blanc Tom Mix
Johann Von Goethe
Arthur Conan Doyle
Charles W. Moore
Sir Walter Scott Alex Haley
Enrico Wallenda Charles Stratton
Buffalo Bill Cody
Norm Crosby Paul Harvey
Rogers Hornsby Dr.
Sugar Ray Robinson
Robert E. Peary
Charles Lindbergh Richard Byrd
William B. Travis
Norman Vincent Peale
Joseph Fort Newton
G. Bromley Oxnam Rev. William Booth
Booker T. Washington
Dr. Charles Mayo
Dr. Andrew Still
Sir Frederick Hopkins Dr. Charles King
James Doolittle Oliver H. Perry
Political Figures: Winston Churchill
Robert R. Livingston
William Shaw James Hoban
Giuseppe Garibaldi Lajos Kossuth